The Group Additive Manufacturing (AM) is concerned with innovative methods of powder- and beam-based AM, the further development of AM processes and the development of special AM alloys. The focus is on selective electron beam melting (SEBM), selective laser melting (SLM) and laser metal deposition (LMD).
A multi-component evaporation model for beam melting processes
In: Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 25 (2017), Art.Nr.: 025003
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Single phase 3D phononic band gap material
In: Scientific Reports (2017), Art.Nr.: 3843
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Fabrication and characterisation of a fully auxetic 3D lattice structure via selective electron beam melting
In: Smart Materials and Structures 26 (2017), Art.Nr.: 025013
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Simulation of grain structure evolution during powder bed based additive manufacturing
In: Additive Manufacturing 13 (2017), p. 124-134
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Influence of the hatching strategy on consolidation during selective electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V
In: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2017), p. 1-10
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Project B2 explores selective electron beam melting, which belongs to the additive manufacturing technologies, for the processing of single-crystalline superalloys. Especially the potential of the inherent high cooling rates is investigated. These lead to an ultra-fine and directional solidified microstructure. The main challenge of this project is to develop innovative processing strategies based on a sound theoretical process understanding in order to produce crack-free and preferably single crystalline samples, also with higher geometric complexity.
Selective electron beam melting represents an interesting alternative to laser melting in the field of powder-based additive manufacturing methods. The evacuated build chamber and the overall high performance allow for the production of components with excellent properties. The almost inertia free deflection and focusing of the electron beam by electromagnetic lenses facilitates extremely high construction speeds at very high precision levels.
This project has the goal to optimize electron beam properties and to provide a better understanding of the melting process and of other influences in order to tap the full potential of this process, both with regard to energy input and process speed. Here, process monitoring plays an important role. Process influences, such as temperature distribution, scanning strategies, and electron beam properties are investigated using both a thermal and a high-speed camera. In addition, the existing field of parameters will be expanded to include high scanning rates (up to 10 m/s). The influence of powder properties, e.g., particle size distribution and bulk density, different scanning strategies, e.g., the multi-beam strategy, will be evaluated in order to tailor component properties.
The basic mechanisms that are essential in the powder based selective beam melting process are poorly understood. Most of the existing analytical and numerical models describing the process of consolidation in a homogenized image, i.e. individual powder particles are not resolved. This approach is suitable for information on averages, but cannot capture the local influence of the powder, i.e. the powder size distribution, the stochastic effect of the powder bed, the wetting of the powder by the melt and the formation of the melt. The actual selective melting process and thereby acting mechanisms can only be understood on the scale of the powder particles, with the help of numerical simulation on the mesoscopic scale. The aim of this project is to provide a numerical tool for mesoscopic simulation of selective beam melting and to use it to develop innovative process strategies. The mesoscopic scale allows the prediction of defects, surface quality and accuracy of the structure for different materials as a function of material parameters (powder form, bulk density, ...) and the process parameters (beam shape, energy per unit length, speed, ...).
In the first phase, a tool for the 2D simulation of selective electron beam melting was developed and validated with experimental results. The main task was the modeling of the entire build process with its different time scales (pre-heating, melting, applying new powder layer). Among other things, the complex coupling of the beam in the powder bed, radiation losses at the surface, mass and energy loss through evaporation and the deformation of the molten bath by the evaporation pressure is taken into account. The software is now able to simulate assembly processes, taking into account different scanning strategies on many layers. Such process strategies as the remelt strategy and the refill strategy are investigated. The verification of the numerical results is done in close cooperation with subproject B2.
In the second phase, the previous model is transferred to polymers. For this purpose, the absorption of the laser beam in the partially transparent stochastic powder bed and the highly viscous, viscoelastic material behavior must be described. Development and verification of the model is carried out in cooperation with subproject B3. In a further step, a method of 3D simulation of the grain structure in the selective beam melting of metals is implemented, in order to predict the texture of the materials as a function of process strategy.
Fundamental understanding of a new and innovative process combining sheet metal forming with additive manufacturing is the main goal of this research work.
Electron beam melting additive manufacturing is used to produce successive layers of a part in a powder bed and offers the ability to produce components closest to their final dimensions, with good surface finish. At this time the process is faster than any other technique of comparable quality, however the parts are not produced at sufficient rate to make them economically viable for any but very high value specific applications. One key output of the project will be the knowledge surrounding the use of the high powder electron beam gun, including the process control, and modeled and validated understanding of beam-powder bed interaction. The target objectives is the transfer of the 2D model to a 3D model and its parallel implementation. The outcome of the simulation will be compared with real experimental data and therefore the model parameters are adjusted in such a way that the resulting numerical melt pool sizes correspond to the experimental ones.
The overarching goal of AMAZE is to rapidly produce large defect-free additively-manufactured (AM) metallic components up to 2 metres in size, ideally with close to zero waste, for use in the following high-tech sectors namely: aeronautics, space, automotive, nuclear fusion and tooling.
Four pilot-scale industrial AM factories will be established and enhanced, thereby giving EU manufacturers and end-users a world-dominant position with respect to AM production of high-value metallic parts, by 2016. A further aim is to achieve 50% cost reduction for finished parts, compared to traditional processing.
The project will design, demonstrate and deliver a modular streamlined work-flow at factory level, offering maximum processing flexibility during AM, a major reduction in non-added-value delays, as well as a 50% reduction in shop-floor space compared with conventional factories.
AMAZE will dramatically increase the commercial use of adaptronics, in-situ sensing, process feedback, novel post-processing and clean-rooms in AM, so that (i) overall quality levels are improved, (ii) dimensional accuracy is increased by 25% (iii) build rates are increased by a factor of 10, and (iv) industrial scrap rates are slashed to <5%.
Scientifically, the critical links between alloy composition, powder/wire production, additive processing, microstructural evolution, defect formation and the final properties of metallic AM parts will be examined and understood. This knowledge will be used to validate multi-level process models that can predict AM processes, part quality and performance.
In order to turn additive manufacturing into a mainstream industrial process, a sharp focus will also be drawn on pre-normative work, standardisation and certification, in collaboration with ISO, ASTM and ECSS.
The team comprises 31 partners: 21 from industry, 8 from academia and 2 from intergovernmental agencies. This represent the largest and most ambitious team ever assembled on this topic.
Raney-copper is a catalyst made from a copper base alloy containing at least one less noble element than copper (e.g. zinc). After fabricating the base material via a casting process consisting of a melt and a quenching step the alloy can be converted into a nanoporous and catalytically active structure using an alkaline solution.
During this project a Raney-copper type alloy will be processed using the selective electron beam melting process (SEBM). The main goal of this project is to utilize the process’ specific characteristics like a high cooling rate and geometric freedom to build periodic cellular catalyst structures. Those cellular structures surface will then be made catalytically active for their application in the methanol synthesis process using a leaching step. In contrast to other yet fabricated cellular metal catalyst structures the Raney-copper ones do not need any further coating with active species like e.g. palladium.
Additive manufacturing of components is a key technology of the future. The powder bed based selective electron beam melting process allows to produce complex components from high performance alloys. Nevertheless, the highly dynamic melting process is not fully understood and suffers from binding faults, changes of the alloy composition and process instabilities. Aim of the project is to understand the basic mechanisms during selective electron beam melting and to use this knowledge to predict and to influence the resulting materials quality. In order to reach this aim, the selevtive electron beam melting process takting selective vaporation phenomena into account is simulated based on a Lattice Boltzmann Model. Evaporation leads to material loss, has influence on the melt pool dynamics and changes the alloy composition. Simulation on the scale of the powder particles reveals phenomena which result from the complex interplay between beam, powder and melt pool. The numerical results are varified by experiments by an exemplary alloy.